Modern India

Anglo Maratha War Treaties

Anglo Maratha Treaty

Treaty of Surat (1775)

  • The earlier treaties between the Company and the Peshwa were confirmed.
  • An English contingent of 2500 men was to be placed at the disposal of Raghoba for supporting his candidature for the Peshwaship.
  • Raghoba was to deposit jewellery worth Rs 6, 00,000 as security in British custody as well as pay half a lakh rupees every month for the upkeep of the army.
  • He agreed to cede to the British Bassein, Salsette and four islands adjacent to Bombay.

Maratha raids into Bengal and the Carnatic were to cease and any peace made by Raghoba with the authorities in Poona was not to exclude the English.

Treaty of Purandhar (1776)

The Bombay Presidency’s decision to lend its support in 1773 to Raghunath Rao’s claims to the Peshwaship was disapproved by the Calcutta Council which asked Bombay to reopen negotiations with the ruling group in the Peshwa’s court at Poona.

Treaty of Wadgaon (1779)

Anglo Maratha Treaty
Anglo Maratha Treaty

Treaty of Salbai (1782)

Salbai located 32 kms to the South of Gwalior became the venue for a treaty signed between Mahadji Sindhia acting for the Peshwa Madhav Rao and the British in 1782 ending the First Anglo-Maratha War. The treaty stipulated that:

  • The company was to restore all territories captured by them including Bassein to the Peshwa and return to him and the Gaekwad territories taken in Gujarat.
  • Salsette and its three neighbouring islands as well as the city of Broach were to remain with the British.
  • Territories granted earlier to the Company by Raghunath Rao would be restored to the Marathas.
  • The Company was not to afford Raghunath Rao any support or protection.
  • The Peshwa was to make Haider Ali relinquish his claims to British territory.
  • Both parties were to abstain from attacking each other’s allies while the Peshwa would neither support any other European power nor allow it to settle in his dominions without the English consent.
  • The Company’s trade privileges were to be restored.
  • The Treaty secured peace with Marathas for 20 years.

Treaty of Bassein (1802)

In agreement of this treaty, Peshwa agreed to

  • To maintain a subsidiary force of 6000 infantry with a proportionate artillery, the annual expense of which was estimated to be Rs 25 lakh.
  • Agreed not to entertain any foreign national hostile to the British in his service.
  • To accept British intercession to settle his differences with the Nizam and the Gaekwad and not to negotiate with any other state his differences with the two of them.

Treaty of Deogaon (1803)

In 1803 Raghuji Bhosle and the Company concluded the treaty of Deogaon in the course of the Second Anglo-Maratha War. Under the treaty Bhonsle agreed to

  • Cede the province of Cuttack including Balasore which gave the Company control over a continuous stretch of the eastern seaboard and linked the presidencies of Bengal and Madras.
  • Expel all foreigners from his service.

Treaty of Surji Anjangaon (1803)

Concluded on December 30, 1803 Sindhia by this treaty agreed to

    • Cede all territory between the Ganga and the Yamuna.
    • Give up his control over the imperial cities of Delhi and Agra as well as the Rajput states.
    • Have an accredited minister at his court.
    • Surrender parts of Bundelkhand, Ahmadnagar, Broach and territories west of the Ajanta hills.
    • Accept the treaty of Bassein.
    • Renounce all claims on the Peshwa, the Mughal emperor, the Nizam, the Gaikwad and the English Company and to accept the latter as a sovereign authority.
    • Not to employ in his service any European without the consent of the British.

In return, the Company promised to

  • Provide Sindhia a force of 6 battalions of infantry, its expenses being defrayed from the revenues of lands ceded by him.
  • Restore to Bhonsle Asirgarh, Burhanpur, Powanghur and Dohud and territories in Kandesh and Gujarat depending on these forts.

By the supplementary treaty of Burhanpur (1804) the British agreed to support him with a subsidiary force.

Treaty of Rajpurghat(1805)

Signed on December 24, 1805 under this treaty, Yashvantrao Holkar agreed:

    • To renounce all claims to the area north of the Bundi hills.
    • Never to entertain in his service any European.

On their part, the British promised

  • Not to disturb Holkar’s possessions in Mewar and malwa or interfere with the rulers south of the Chambal.
  • To restore those of his possessions situated south of the River Tapti.

Treaty of Poona (1817)

The British were apprehensive lest Peshwa Baji Rao II stir up anti-British sentiments as well as strengthen his army for hostile action. A new pact a supplement to the earlier treaty of Bassessin was signed on June 13 1817. According to the new treaty, the Peshwa agreed to:

  • Cede to the British some more lands in perpetuity and.
  • Abide by all the articles in the treaty of Bassein not contrary to the new pact.

Treaty of Gwalior (1817)

As part of the preparations for launching his campaign against the Pindaris, Lord Hastings concluded this treaty with Daulat Rao Sindhia on November 5, 1817. The main points of the treaty were:

  • Both the parties would deploy their forces in operations against the Pindaris.
  • Sindhia would never readmit the Pindaris nor lend them any support.
  • Sindhia was to place 5000 horsemen in active operations against the Pindaris.

Treaty of Mandasor (1818)

It was concluded on January 6, 1818 by Malhar Rao Holkar II in the course of the third Anglo-Maratha war. Under its terms, Holkar agreed to:

  • Confirm a British commitment to the Pindari chief, Nawab Amir Khan and renounce all claims to territories guaranteed to him.
  • Cede in perpetuity to Raja Zalim Singh of Kotah the four paraganas rented by the Raja.
  • Cede to the British claims of tribute and revenues on the Rajas of Udaipur, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Kotah, Bundhi and Karauli.
  • Renounce all claims to territories within or north of the Bundi hills.

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