Modern World History

Chinese Revolution

The Chinese Revolution

The Chinese Communist Revolution refers to the emergence of China as communist nation in 1949.This revolution led to the success of Chinese communist party in its war against the KMT government. The communist forces succeeded in defeating the government of Chiang Kai Shek and that led to emergence of communist China. Since the policies, programs and the outlook of the communist government were different of KMT, the success of communist party was no less than the revolutionary in nature. No doubt the Chinese revolution was the product of the prevailing evils of political administration; economic and socio-cultural life.

After the death of Dr Sun Yat Sen in 1925, Chiang Kai Shek established his control over the government and limitation of his administration played an important role in creating the conditions responsible for revolution. The rule of KMT was despotic in nature which led the common masses to face immense difficulties in their day to day life. The policies and programs like nationalism, democracy and land reforms were the key principles of KMT under Dr Sen but all these policies were dropped by Chiang Kai Shek after 1925.

Peasants and Labours

General Chaing Kai Shek supported the feudal lords and the bourgeois and neglected the interests of peasants and labour.No effort was made to improve the conditions of factories and no land reforms were initiated by him. The rule of KMT government became the symbol of corruption and inefficiency. The common masses were exploited at all the levels. When China was invaded by Japan in 1931 the Chiang Kai Shek government made no effort to counter the Japanese and masses were increasingly alienated from him.

Industrial and Agricultural Revolution

The industrial system of China was under-developed as industrial revolution had not taken place yet. The Chinese factories were in total ruin and production level was abysmally low. The agricultural revolution had also not taken place with condition of agriculture was very pathetic. The peasants were exploited by landlords who controlled most of the land. The problems such as hunger, poverty and unemployment were widespread. The wrong economic policies of KMT government aggravated the situation as General pursued the policy of printing extra money to pay the soldiers which led to high scale inflation.

Leaders of Chinese Revolution

The exploitation of peasants by the landlords and exploitation of laborers by bourgeois also played important role in Chinese revolution. When the KMT government failed to initiate measures to end the exploitation, it gave rise to discontent among the public. The communist leadership was strong, efficient and effective. Mao Tse Tung and Chou En Lai were capable leaders who could lead the forces. The administration of Communist party was also efficient and honest in areas controlled by them. The communist pursued the policy of land reforms and also undertook steps to improve the conditions of factories in areas controlled by them. They also opposed Japanese invasion and could win popular support.

The success of communist revolution gave boost to democratic forces as communist party was fighting against absolute rule of Chiang Kai Shek.The revolution also strengthened the communist forces throughout the world. It strengthened the nationalist forces in various parts of the world and this nationalism found expression in Vietnam and other parts of the world. It deepened the era of cold war as it gave boost to communist bloc. China and Soviet Union signed friendship treaty and got closely associated with each other. The emergence of communist movement strengthened the resolve of American government’s fight against the communist forces with determination and ultimately led to their involvement in Korean War and Vietnam War. The Chinese aggressively pursued foreign policy in its neighborhood with Tibet autonomy being violated and aggression against India leading to Sino-Indian war.

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