History Notes On Early Phase of National Movement. Read more about List Of Indian National Movements like Growth of Political Awareness, Vernacular Press Act, Ilbert Bill Partition of Bengal (1905-1914), Indian National Congress, Swadeshi Movement, Swaraj, Calcutta Session (1906), Surat Session (1907), Lucknow Session (1916), Morley-Minto Reforms (1909), Revolutionary Terrorism, Muslim League, Nationalists and the First World War and Home Rule League.
Growth of Political Awareness
The series of devastating famines that gripped the country from 1866-1901 shattered the daydreams of guided development and brought home to the intellectuals the stark poverty of the people and the extent of the economic underdevelopment of the country. In the political field Britain had discarded the slogan of training Indians for self-govt and declared that the political aim of British rule was to establish permanent benevolent despotism. Indians they said were unfit for selfgovt or democracy.
The freedom of the press began to be tampered with .Even elementary civil rights were increasingly violated and restricted. In the post 1857 phase of colonialism the govt resorted to the divisive forces of communalism, casteim and regionalism to maintain their supremacy. The British also abandoned all attempts at social reform and began to ally themselves with the most backward traditional and obscurantist cultural, religious and social forces. The British government spent less than 3% on education. Moreover the Indian intelligentsia suffered from growing unemployment. Even the few who found jobs realised that most of the better paid jobs were reserved for the English middle and upper classes. The discontent was further heightened by the policies of the British Raj under Lytton and Ripon.It cleared the ground for organised nationalist activity.
Vernacular Press Act
History Notes On Vernacular Press Act, Indian National Movement, Modern India, daily life in Modern india, Modern india customs, Modern india traditions, Modern india unit plan, markets in Modern india, social factor of Modern india, Modern india education , Modern india technolgy inventions inovations from historytuitions.com
Lord Lytton wanted to thwart the seditious ambitions of the western educated elite. He promulgated the Vernacular Press Act (1878) which imposed severe restrictions on the vernacular press- a major instrument in the hands of the intelligentsia in spreading nationalist ideas. The Arms Act which made it mandatory for Indians possessing arms to draw out licenses deeply smacked of racialism and was strongly resisted by the educated elite of India. The holding of the Imperial Darbar at Delhi in 1877 when the country was suffering from famine showed what value the government attached to the welfare of Indians. In 1878 the government reduced the maximum age limit for the Civil Service from 21 to 19 years.
History Notes On Indian Home Rule Movement in Indian National Movement. Two Home Rule Leagues were started in 1915-1916 one under the leadership of Tilak and the other under the leadership of Annie Besant and Subramanian Iyer.
In 1883 Lord Ripon tried to pass a law which gave Indian magistrates the right to try Europeans in criminal cases. Backed by the Anglo-Indian press the Europeans in India organized a vehement agitation against the Ilbert Bill. The government of India ultimately bowed before the Europeans and withdrew the bill. The Indians were horrified at the racial bitterness displayed by the critics of the bill. Their own perceptions of the degradation of foreign rule became sharpened.
Nationalist Indians realized that they too should organize themselves on a national scale and agitate continuously and unitedly to get their demands accepted. These developments paved the way for the organization of the Indian National Congress. The Congress became the chief organization representing the will of the Indian people and led the Indian people in their struggle for freedom.
Nationalists and the First World War
In June 1914 the First World War broke out between Great Britain, France, Russia and Japan on one side joined later by Italy and USA and Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey on the other. In India the years of the war marked the maturing of nationalism. In the beginning the Indian nationalist leaders including Lokmanya Tilak who had been released in June 1914 decided to support the war effort of the government in the mistaken belief that great Britain would repay India’s loyalty with gratitude and enable India to take a long step forward on the road to self-govt.They did not realise fully that the different powers were fighting the First World War precisely to safe-guard their existing colonies.
Indian National Congress
History Notes On Indian National Congress. Indian National Movement got a great impetus after the foundation of the Indian National Congress in 1885. National Movement in its early phase (1885-1905) was dominated by the Moderate leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Surendra Nath Banerjee, and Pheroze Shah Mehta.
The Indian National Movement got a great impetus after the foundation of the Indian National Congress in 1885 A.D.It was A.O Hume a retired member of the Indian Civil Service who took the initiative in this direction.
The National Movement in its early phase (1885-1905) was dominated by the Moderate leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Surendra Nath Banerjee, and Pheroze Shah Mehta. Their main objectives during this period were following: The early nationalists demanded wider powers for the councils as well as training in self-govt.In the economic field they demanded the removal of poverty by the rapid development of agriculture and modern industries. In the administrative field they made a demand for Indianisation of the higher administrative services. For the defence of their civil rights they demanded the freedom of speech and press. The moderate leaders tried to create the national consciousness and raise the public opinion against the British imperialism.
Infact during this period (1885-1905) the national leadership tried to give a common political and economic programme to their countrymen and tried to continue the national struggle from a common platform. As the aims of the Congress during 1885-1905 were quite moderate so were its methods. The Congress led by the Moderates during this period adopted peaceful means to achieve their aims. They had full faith in the British sense of justice so they were friendly towards the British. They believed in constitutional reforms. They would send petitions year after year to the British Govt hoping that it would grant them freedom of its own accord. But as the British Govt refused to take them seriously the national movement after 1905 diverted towards the Extremists who did not hesitate in using extreme means to achieve their aims.
Swadeshi literally means of one’s own country. It implied that people should use goods produced within the country. This would help promote Indian industries and strengthen the nation. It would also generate patriotism. The promotion of swadeshi was accompanied by the advocacy of boycott. The two were complementary. It was realised that by organizing the boycott of foreign goods were mainly British sale of these goods would suffer. This would hurt Britain’s economic interests and the British govt would be forced to concede to Indian demands. Swadeshi and Boycott led to the strengthening of political activity all over India. British cloth, sugar and other goods were boycotted. Shops selling foreign goods were picketed. In many places public burnings of cloth were organized. The extremists were keen to extend boycott to other things. They advocated the relentless boycott of officialized education, justice and executive administration backed by the positive development of swadeshi industries, national schools and arbitration courts. This method of agitation against foreign rule came to be known as the passive resistance.
From 1885 to 1947 the sessions of the Congress were held every year at different stations. One of its important sessions was the Calcutta Session which was held in 1906.When the movement against the partition of Bengal was at its height the annual session of the Congress was held at Calcutta in 1906 under the president ship of Dadabhai Naoroji.
This session is very important because of the following things. It tired to effect conciliation between the Moderates and Extremists.Dadabahi Naoroji’s address formed a remarkable departure from the conventional type of Congress addresses. Here he sponsored the new programme of the Congress which had so far been advocated by the extremists. For the first time Calcutta Session (1906) was declared as the aim of the Congress. In his own words, “We want self-government or Calcutta Session (1906) like that of the United Kingdom or dominions. The Swadeshi and the Boycott were accorded full support by the Congress. For the first time Boycott was authorised to be used as a political weapon. The Congress condemned the Partition of Bengal. In the words of DadaBhai Naoroji it is a bad blunder of England. Promotion of education was declared as the aim of the Congress.
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